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Effect Of Domestic Politics And International Diplomacy On American Strategy Formulation


Foreign diplomacy involves all the engagements of a nation with other nations. Currently foreign diplomacy is very essential especially with development of globalization and the fact that nation are currently interdependent. The foreign diplomacy brings about the creation of policies. These foreign policies are created by head governments with an attempt to obtain comprehensive domestic and international agendas. It involves detailed steps involving domestic politics. These policies are usually developed by a combination of domestic and international players. The decision taken is usually linked to various factors such as need for recognition by a leader, extent of rationality, local politics and lastly global and domestic interest groups.

The national leaders particularly the president in the United States plays a very critical role in the integration of international and domestic politics. It is conventionally understood that any head of a nation is motivated by two major issues; first is to retain political power and lastly to create and retain policy alliance. Additionally, the domestic politics have also a huge impact since he or she may be aiming at achieving local objectives by employing international policies or the international policies not to hinder with local policies.

Currently political systems play a critical role in the implementation of potential policies since there must be a consensus by the government. The extent of acceptability of such policy will depend on the political system. For example a decision made within a democratic environment that does not have some kind of consensus has low chances of it succeeding. It is therefore important to note irrespective of the prevailing political system, domestic politics have a huge impact to foreign policy decision. Therefore, in the formulation of American national strategy, the head of state has to deal with international and domestic politics and ensure a good relation is maintained both domestically and internationally.

Therefore in the formulation of American national strategy, the involved groups take into consideration the aimed at policy and the likelihood of it to be accepted. Additionally, the head of government considers domestic perspective of the policy or strategy and also the international aim. After weighing the two, the head of state is likely to consider local interest in relation to international interest.

Take for example the US and India treaty. The treaty between the two nations was nuclear treaty that was to be developed between the two nations in the 2005. India did not enter into agreement by signing Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty and its aim was to maintain its nuclear abilities to safeguard itself just other countries did. US were against this particularly on a test done by India and that done by Pakistan in 1998. Later in 2005, the treaty was redrafted such that India did not sign the form treaty, but allowed International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out supervision on its nuclear operations. This treaty enabled India to rep-engineer its nuclear fuel for generation of energy making it a nuclear weapon power. In spite this being a win- win situation, the head of government in India had to take itself out of this treaty so that it could protect its local political matters.

From the above discussion, it is evident that both local and international politics play a critical role in making international strategic decision. This is based on the fact that the major issue considered is threats posed on security issues. Taking into consideration US on matters connected to 9/11, it modified its approach towards security threats locally due to its foreign decisions. During this time, the head of government aimed at Taliban rule in Afghanistan and Saddam Hussein in Iraq in attempt to smash al Qaeda attacks. Therefore, Bush came up with Operation Enduring Freedom with such countries as France, Germany and UK. His major aim was to wipe out and punish individuals responsible for 9/11 attacks. In this regard the head of government has support of local politics and therefore made it possible to attack Iraq.